Oliver Twist was born and raised into a life of poverty and misfortune in a workhouse in an unnamed town Orphaned by his mother's death in childbirth and his father's mysterious absence, Oliver is meagrely provided for under the terms of the Poor Law and spends the first nine years of his life living at a baby farm in the 'care' of a woman named Mrs. Mann. Oliver is brought up with little food and few comforts. Around the time of Oliver's ninth birthday, Mr. Bumble, the parish beadle, removes Oliver from the baby farm and puts him to work picking and weaving oakum at the main workhouse. Oliver, who toils with very little food, remains in the workhouse within six months, and later decides to run away to London to seek for a better life. L'histoire concerne un orphelin, Oliver Twist, soumis à des privations et des vexations dans l'hospice paroissial (workhouse) où il est né.Choisi par tirage au sort par ses camarades affamés, il ose demander une portion supplémentaire de gruau et il est alors placé chez un croque-mort, d'où il s'échappe pour prendre la route de Londres ; dès son arrivée, il rencontre l'un des personnages les plus célèbres de Dickens, The Artful Dodger — nom traduit par Rusé matois pour Alfred Gérardin en 1893 et Le Renard dans la collection PléiadeN 1 — chef d'une bande de jeunes pickpockets. Naïvement confiant en son nouveau compagnon, il se laisse entraîner dans l'antre de son maître, le criminel Fagin.
The Jungle Book (1894) is a collection of stories by English author Rudyard Kipling. The stories are fables, using animals in an anthropomorphic manner to give moral lessons. A principal character is the boy or "man-cub" Mowgli, who is raised in the jungle by wolves. Other characters include Shere Khan the tiger and Baloo the bear. The book has been adapted many times for film and other media. Le Livre de la Jungle est un recueil de nouvelles dont chacune raconte une histoire qui se passe dans la jungle, forêt de l’Inde où vivent des animaux sauvages typiques du pays, ainsi que des hommes. Les nouvelles se succèdent dans un ordre qui n’est pas nécessairement chronologique, et permettent de découvrir par différents côtés la destinée de Mowgli petit d’homme, son éducation, la vie sociale du monde des animaux, et les lois de la Jungle auxquelles tous sont soumis, les hommes aussi.
The Spread of Novels
Author: Mary Helen McMurran
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Fiction has always been in a state of transformation and circulation: how does this history of mobility inform the emergence of the novel? The Spread of Novels explores the active movements of English and French fiction in the eighteenth century and argues that the new literary form of the novel was the result of a shift in translation. Demonstrating that translation was both the cause and means by which the novel attained success, Mary Helen McMurran shows how this period was a watershed in translation history, signaling the end of a premodern system of translation and the advent of modern literary exchange. McMurran illuminates aspects of prose fiction translation history, including the radical revision of fiction's origins from that of cross-cultural transfer to one rooted by nation; the contradictory pressures of the book trade, which relied on translators to energize the market, despite the increasing devaluation of their labor; and the dynamic role played by prose fiction translation in Anglo-French relations across the Channel and in the New World. McMurran examines French and British novels, as well as fiction that circulated in colonial North America, and she considers primary source materials by writers as varied as Frances Brooke, Daniel Defoe, Samuel Richardson, and Françoise Graffigny. The Spread of Novels reassesses the novel's embodiment of modernity and individualism, discloses the novel's surprisingly unmodern characteristics, and recasts the genre's rise as part of a burgeoning vernacular cosmopolitanism.
Publisher: Hyweb Technology Co. Ltd.
On the surface a witty, bantering tale of advneture (or misadventure), Candide is actually a savage, satiric thrust at the philosophical optimism which proclaims that nation-wide disasters and individual suffering are both just part of a cosmic plan which is essentially good. Voltaire was not prepared to excuse the world's evil quite so easily, now would he encourage man to accept evil as fate without trying to prevent it or fight it. Candide is the story of a man who, though pummeled and slapped in every direction by fate, tries desperately to cling to his optimism.
Author: Henri Monod
Pétain's Jewish Children examines the nature of the relationship between the Vichy regime and its Jewish citizens in the period 1940 to 1942. Previous studies have generally viewed the experiences of French Jewry during the Second World War through the lenses of persecution, resistance, or rescue; an approach which has had the unintended effect of stripping Jewish actors of their agency. This volume, however, draws attention to the specific category of French Jewish youth which reveals significant exceptions to Vichy's antisemitic policies, wherein the regime's desire for a reinvigorated youth and the rebirth of the nation took precedence over its racial laws. While Jews were becoming marginalised from the civil service and liberal professions, the New Order did not seek to exclude young French Jews from participating in a series of youth projects that aimed to rebuild France in the aftermath of its defeat to Germany. For example, the Jewish scouts' emphasis on manual work and a return to the land ensured that it was looked upon favourably by Vichy, who rewarded the scouts financially. Similarly, young French Jews were called up to take part in the Chantiers de la Jeunesse, Vichy's alternative to compulsory military service. In considering the roles of some of Vichy's lesser known ministers with responsibilities for youth, for whom antisemitism was not a priority, Pétain's Jewish Children illuminates the tensions between Vichy's ambition for national regeneration and its racial policies, rendering any simple account of its antisemitism misleading. While hindsight may point to the contrary, this volume shows that the emergence of the new regime did not signal the beginning of the end for French Jewry. In Vichy's first two years, while ambiguity reigned, possibilities to integrate and participate with the New Order endured and Jews were constantly presented with new avenues to probe and explore. After this point, the drastic policy changes fuelled by Prime Minister Pierre Laval and the head of Vichy Police, René Bousquet, coupled with the total occupation of France by German forces in November 1942, reduced the possibilities for coexistence almost to nothing.
In the world of Inuit traditional stories, animals and humans are not such different creatures, and animals often have much to teach humans about the world. In The Orphan and the Polar Bear, a little orphan who has been abandoned on the sea ice by a group of cruel hunters is discovered and adopted by a polar bear elder. While living in the bear's village, the orphan learns many lessons about survival and his own place in the world. Retold for contemporary audiences by Inuit storyteller Sakiasi Qaunaq and illustrated by internationally renowned artist Eva Widermann, The Orphan and the Polar Bear makes this beautiful traditional tale widely accessible for the first time.
The Dictionary of Louisiana French (DLF) provides the richest inventory of French vocabulary in Louisiana and reflects precisely the speech of the period from 1930 to the present. This dictionary describes the current usage of French-speaking peoples in the five broad regions of South Louisiana: the coastal marshes, the banks of the Mississippi River, the central area, the north, and the western prairie. Data were collected during interviews from at least five persons in each of twenty-four areas in these regions. In addition to the data collected from fieldwork, the dictionary contains material compiled from existing lexical inventories, from texts published after 1930, and from archival recordings. The new authoritative resource, the DLF not only contains the largest number of words and expressions but also provides the most complete information available for each entry. Entries include the word in the conventional French spelling, the pronunciation (including attested variants), the part of speech classification, the English equivalent, and the word's use in common phrases. The DLF features a wealth of illustrative examples derived from fieldwork and textual sources and identification of the parish where the entry was collected or the source from which it was compiled. An English-to-Louisiana French index enables readers to find out how particular notions would be expressed in la Louisiane .
Author: Jason Thompson
Publisher: American Univ in Cairo Press
Looking at encounters of European travelers with Egypt in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this collection of essays focuses on the experience of the less well known travelers and institutions.